Sangeetha Pulapaka

Gymnosperms (from the Greek terms gymnos , meaning "naked", and sperma meaning "seed') produce seeds that are totally exposed or borne in the scales of cones. These "naked-seed" plants-truly a misnomer because the seeds are really highly protected under the scales of developing cones-first included the cycad and ginko; later , the sequoia, cypress, and pines evolved.

The major phyla of gymnosperms are as follows: Coniferophyta (or Pinophyta) are conifers

that include pine, spruce, hemlock and fir; Ginkgophyta, that consists of one species, the ginko or maidenhaor tree; Cycladphyta, the cycads or ornamental plants; and Gnetophyta, a collection of very unusual vines and trees, such as the Ephedra and Gnetum.

Gymnosperms are important to the wood and paper industry and are also useful in making resing and turpentine.